Got Orphaned OpsMgr Objects?

Have you ever wondered what would happen if, in Operations Manager, you’d delete a Management Server or Gateway that managed objects (such as network devices) or has agents pointing uniquely to it as their primary server?

The answer is simple, but not very pleasant: you get ORPHANED objects, which will linger in the database but you won’t be able to “see” or re-assign anymore from the GUI.

So the first thing I want to share is a query to determine IF you have any of those orphaned agents. Or even if you know, since you are not able to "see" them from the console, you might have to dig their name out of the database. Here's a query I got from a colleague in our reactive support team:


-- Check for orphaned health services (e.g. agent).
declare @DiscoverySourceId uniqueidentifier;
SET @DiscoverySourceId = dbo.fn_DiscoverySourceId_User();
SELECT TME.[TypedManagedEntityid], HS.PrincipalName
FROM MTV_HealthService HS
INNER JOIN dbo.[BaseManagedEntity] BHS WITH(nolock)
ON BHS.[BaseManagedEntityId] = HS.[BaseManagedEntityId]
-- get host managed computer instances
INNER JOIN dbo.[TypedManagedEntity] TME WITH(nolock)
ON TME.[BaseManagedEntityId] = BHS.[TopLevelHostEntityId]
AND TME.[IsDeleted] = 0
INNER JOIN dbo.[DerivedManagedTypes] DMT WITH(nolock)
ON DMT.[DerivedTypeId] = TME.[ManagedTypeId]
INNER JOIN dbo.[ManagedType] BT WITH(nolock)
ON DMT.[BaseTypeId] = BT.[ManagedTypeId]
AND BT.[TypeName] = N'Microsoft.Windows.Computer'
-- only with missing primary
LEFT OUTER JOIN dbo.Relationship HSC WITH(nolock)
ON HSC.[SourceEntityId] = HS.[BaseManagedEntityId]
AND HSC.[RelationshipTypeId] = dbo.fn_RelationshipTypeId_HealthServiceCommunication()
AND HSC.[IsDeleted] = 0
INNER JOIN DiscoverySourceToTypedManagedEntity DSTME WITH(nolock)
ON DSTME.[TypedManagedEntityId] = TME.[TypedManagedEntityId]
AND DSTME.[DiscoverySourceId] = @DiscoverySourceId
WHERE HS.[IsAgent] = 1
AND HSC.[RelationshipId] IS NULL;

Once you have identified the agent you need to re-assign to a new management server, this is doable from the SDK. Below is a powershell script I wrote which will re-assign it to the RMS. It has to run from within the OpsMgr Command Shell.
You still need to change the logic which chooses which agent – this is meant as a starting base… you could easily expand it into accepting parameters and/or consuming an input text file, or using a different Management Server than the RMS… you get the point.

  1. $mg = (get-managementgroupconnection).managementgroup
  2. $mrc = Get-RelationshipClass | where {$_.name –like "*Microsoft.SystemCenter.HealthServiceCommunication*"}
  3. $cmro = new-object Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Monitoring.CustomMonitoringRelationshipObject($mrc)
  4. $rms = (get-rootmanagementserver).HostedHealthService
  5. $deviceclass = $mg.getmonitoringclass(“HealthService”)
  6. $mc = Get-connector | where {$_.Name –like “*MOM Internal Connector*”}
  7. Foreach ($obj in $mg.GetMonitoringObjects($deviceclass))
  8. {
  9.     #the next line should be changed to pick the right agent to re-assign
  10.     if ($obj.DisplayName -match 'dsxlab')
  11.     {
  12.                 Write-host $obj.displayname
  13.                 $imdd = new-object Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.ConnectorFramework.IncrementalMonitoringDiscoveryData
  14.                 $cmro.SetSource($obj)
  15.                 $cmro.SetTarget($rms)
  16.                 $imdd.Add($cmro)
  17.                 $imdd.Commit($mc)
  18.     }
  19. }

Similarly, you might get orphaned network devices. The script below is used to re-assign all Network Devices to the RMS. This script is actually something I have had even before the other one (yes, it has been sitting in my "digital drawer" for a couple of years or more…) and uses the same concept – only you might notice that the relation's source and target are "reversed", since the relationships are different:

  • the Management Server (source) "manages" the Network Device (target)
  • the Agent (source) "talks" to the Management Server (target)

With a bit of added logic it should be easy to have it work for specific devices.

  1. $mg = (get-managementgroupconnection).managementgroup
  2. $mrc = Get-RelationshipClass | where {$_.name –like "*Microsoft.SystemCenter.HealthServiceShouldManageEntity*"}
  3. $cmro = new-object Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Monitoring.CustomMonitoringRelationshipObject($mrc)
  4. $rms = (get-rootmanagementserver).HostedHealthService
  5. $deviceclass = $mg.getmonitoringclass(“NetworkDevice”)
  6. Foreach ($obj in $mg.GetMonitoringObjects($deviceclass))
  7. {
  8.                 Write-host $obj.displayname
  9.                 $imdd = new-object Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.ConnectorFramework.IncrementalMonitoringDiscoveryData
  10.                 $cmro.SetSource($rms)
  11.                 $cmro.SetTarget($obj)
  12.                 $imdd.Add($cmro)
  13.                 $mc = Get-connector | where {$_.Name –like “*MOM Internal Connector*”}
  14.                 $imdd.Commit($mc)
  15. }

Disclaimer

The information in this weblog is provided "AS IS" with no warranties, and confers no rights. This weblog does not represent the thoughts, intentions, plans or strategies of my employer. It is solely my own personal opinion. All code samples are provided "AS IS" without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and/or fitness for a particular purpose.

OpsMgr Eventlog analysis with Powershell

The following technique should already be understood by any powersheller. Here we focus on Operations Manager log entries, even if the data mining technique shows is entirely possibly – and encouraged 🙂 – with any other event log.

Let’s start by getting our eventlog into a variable called $evt:

PS  >> $evt = Get-Eventlog “Operations Manager”

The above only works locally in POSH v1.

In POSH v2 you can go remotely by using the “-computername” parameter:

PS  >> $evt = Get-Eventlog “Operations Manager” –computername RMS.domain.com

Anyhow, you can get to this remotely also in POSHv1 with this other more “dotNET-tish” syntax:

PS >> $evt = (New-Object System.Diagnostics.Eventlog -ArgumentList "Operations Manager").get_Entries()

you could even export this (or any of the above) to a CLIXML file:

PS >> (New-Object System.Diagnostics.Eventlog -ArgumentList "Operations Manager").get_Entries() | export-clixml -path c:\evt\Evt-OpsMgr-RMS.MYDOMAIN.COM.xml

and then you could reload your eventlog to another machine:

PS  >> $evt = import-clixml c:\evt\Evt-OpsMgr-RMS.MYDOMAIN.COM.xml

whatever way you used to populate your $evt  variable, be it from a “live” eventlog or by re-importing it from XML, you can then start analyzing it:

PS  >> $evt | where {$_.Entrytype -match "Error"} | select EventId,Source,Message | group eventid

Count Name                      Group
—– —-                      —–
1510 4509                      {@{EventID=4509; Source=HealthService; Message=The constructor for the managed module type "Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Mom.DatabaseQueryModules.GroupCalculatio.
   15 20022                     {@{EventID=20022; Source=OpsMgr Connector; Message=The health service {7B0E947B-2055…
    3 26319                     {@{EventID=26319; Source=OpsMgr SDK Service; Message=An exception was thrown while p…
    1 4512                      {@{EventID=4512; Source=HealthService; Message=Converting data batch to XML failed w…

the above is functionally identical to the following:

PS  >> $evt | where {$_.Entrytype -eq 1} | select EventID,Source,Message | group eventid

Count Name                      Group
—– —-                      —–
1510 4509                      {@{EventID=4509; Source=HealthService; Message=The constructor for the managed modul…
   15 20022                     {@{EventID=20022; Source=OpsMgr Connector; Message=The health service {7B0E947B-2055…
    3 26319                     {@{EventID=26319; Source=OpsMgr SDK Service; Message=An exception was thrown while p…
    1 4512                      {@{EventID=4512; Source=HealthService; Message=Converting data batch to XML failed w…

Note that Eventlog Entries’ type is an ENUM that has values of 0,1,2 – similarly to OpsMgr health states – but beware that their order is not the same, as shown in the following table:

Code OpsMgr States Events EntryType
0 Not Monitored Information
1 Success Error
2 Warning Warning
3 Critical

Let’s now look at Information Events (Entrytype –eq 0)

PS  >> $evt | where {$_.Entrytype -eq 0} | select EventID,Source,Message | group eventid

Count Name                      Group
—– —-                      —–
4135 2110                      {@{EventID=2110; Source=HealthService; Message=Health Service successfully transferr…
1548 21025                     {@{EventID=21025; Source=OpsMgr Connector; Message=OpsMgr has received new configura…
4644 7026                      {@{EventID=7026; Source=HealthService; Message=The Health Service successfully logge…
1548 7023                      {@{EventID=7023; Source=HealthService; Message=The Health Service has downloaded sec…
1548 7025                      {@{EventID=7025; Source=HealthService; Message=The Health Service has authorized all…
1548 7024                      {@{EventID=7024; Source=HealthService; Message=The Health Service successfully logge…
1548 7028                      {@{EventID=7028; Source=HealthService; Message=All RunAs accounts for management gro…
   16 20021                     {@{EventID=20021; Source=OpsMgr Connector; Message=The health service {7B0E947B-2055…
   13 7019                      {@{EventID=7019; Source=HealthService; Message=The Health Service has validated all …
    4 4002                      {@{EventID=4002; Source=Health Service Script; Message=Microsoft.Windows.Server.Logi…

 

And “Warning” events (Entrytype –eq 2):

PS  >> $evt | where {$_.Entrytype -eq 2} | select EventID,Source,Message | group eventid

Count Name                      Group
—– —-                      —–
1511 1103                      {@{EventID=1103; Source=HealthService; Message=Summary: 1 rule(s)/monitor(s) failed …
  501 20058                     {@{EventID=20058; Source=OpsMgr Connector; Message=The Root Connector has received b…
    5 29202                     {@{EventID=29202; Source=OpsMgr Config Service; Message=OpsMgr Config Service could …
  421 31501                     {@{EventID=31501; Source=Health Service Modules; Message=No primary recipients were …
   18 10103                     {@{EventID=10103; Source=Health Service Modules; Message=In PerfDataSource, could no…
    1 29105                     {@{EventID=29105; Source=OpsMgr Config Service; Message=The request for management p…

 

 

Ok now let’s see those event 20022, for example… so we get an idea of which healthservices they are referring to (20022 indicates" “hearthbeat failure”, btw):

PS  >> $evt | where {$_.eventid -eq 20022} | select message

Message
——-
The health service {7B0E947B-2055-C12A-B6DB-DD6B311ADF39} running on host webapp3.domain1.mydomain.com and s…
The health service {E3B3CCAA-E797-4F08-860F-47558B3DA477} running on host SERVER1.domain2.mydomain.com and serving…
The health service {E3B3CCAA-E797-4F08-860F-47558B3DA477} running on host SERVER1.domain2.mydomain.com and serving…
The health service {E3B3CCAA-E797-4F08-860F-47558B3DA477} running on host SERVER1.domain2.mydomain.com and serving…
The health service {52E16F9C-EB1A-9FAF-5B9C-1AA9C8BC28E3} running on host DC4WK3.domain1.mydomain.com and se…
The health service {F96CC9E6-2EC4-7E63-EE5A-FF9286031C50} running on host VWEBDL2.domain1.mydomain.com and s…
The health service {71987EE0-909A-8465-C32D-05F315C301CC} running on host VDEVWEBPROBE2.domain2.mydomain.com….
The health service {BAF6716E-54A7-DF68-ABCB-B1101EDB2506} running on host XP2SMS002.domain2.mydomain.com and serving mana…
The health service {30C81387-D5E0-32D6-C3A3-C649F1CF66F1} running on host stgweb3.domain3.mydomain.com and…
The health service {3DCDD330-BBBB-B8E8-4FED-EF163B27DE0A} running on host VWEBDL1.domain1.mydomain.com and s…
The health service {13A47552-2693-E774-4F87-87DF68B2F0C0} running on host DC2.domain4.mydomain.com and …
The health service {920BF9A8-C315-3064-A5AA-A92AA270529C} running on host FSCLU2 and serving management group Pr…
The health service {FAA3C2B5-C162-C742-786F-F3F8DC8CAC2F} running on host WEBAPP4.domain1.mydomain.com and s…
The health service {3DCDD330-BBBB-B8E8-4FED-EF163B27DE0A} running on host WEBDL1.domain1.mydomain.com and s…
The health service {3DCDD330-BBBB-B8E8-4FED-EF163B27DE0A} running on host WEBDL1.domain1.mydomain.com and s…

 

or let’s look at some warning for the Config Service:

PS  >> $evt | where {$_.Eventid -eq 29202}

   Index Time          EntryType   Source                 InstanceID Message
   —– —-          ———   ——                 ———- ——-
5535065 Dec 07 21:18  Warning     OpsMgr Config Ser…   2147512850 OpsMgr Config Service could not retrieve a cons…
5543960 Dec 09 16:39  Warning     OpsMgr Config Ser…   2147512850 OpsMgr Config Service could not retrieve a cons…
5545536 Dec 10 01:06  Warning     OpsMgr Config Ser…   2147512850 OpsMgr Config Service could not retrieve a cons…
5553119 Dec 11 08:24  Warning     OpsMgr Config Ser…   2147512850 OpsMgr Config Service could not retrieve a cons…
5555677 Dec 11 10:34  Warning     OpsMgr Config Ser…   2147512850 OpsMgr Config Service could not retrieve a cons…

Once seen those, can you remember of any particular load you had on those days that justifies the instance space changing so quickly that the Config Service couldn’t keep up?

 

Or let’s group those events with ID 21025 by hour, so we know how many Config recalculations we’ve had (which, if many, might indicate Config Churn):

PS  >> $evt | where {$_.Eventid -eq 21025} | select TimeGenerated | % {$_.TimeGenerated.ToShortDateString()} | group

Count Name                      Group
—– —-                      —–
   39 12/7/2009                 {12/7/2009, 12/7/2009, 12/7/2009, 12/7/2009…}
  203 12/8/2009                 {12/8/2009, 12/8/2009, 12/8/2009, 12/8/2009…}
  217 12/9/2009                 {12/9/2009, 12/9/2009, 12/9/2009, 12/9/2009…}
  278 12/10/2009                {12/10/2009, 12/10/2009, 12/10/2009, 12/10/2009…}
  259 12/11/2009                {12/11/2009, 12/11/2009, 12/11/2009, 12/11/2009…}
  224 12/12/2009                {12/12/2009, 12/12/2009, 12/12/2009, 12/12/2009…}
  237 12/13/2009                {12/13/2009, 12/13/2009, 12/13/2009, 12/13/2009…}
   91 12/14/2009                {12/14/2009, 12/14/2009, 12/14/2009, 12/14/2009…}

 

Event ID 21025 shows that there is a new configuration for the Management Group.

Event ID 29103 has a similar wording, but shows that there is a new configuration for a given Healthservice. These should normally be many more events, unless your only health Service is the RMS, which is unlikely…

If we look at the event description (“message”) in search for the name (or even the GUID, as both are present) or our RMS, as follows, then they should be the same numbers of the 21025 above:

PS  >> $evt | where {$_.Eventid -eq 29103} | where {$_.message -match "myrms.domain.com"} | select TimeGenerated | % {$_.TimeGenerated.ToShortDateString()} | group

Count Name                      Group
—– —-                      —–
   39 12/7/2009                 {12/7/2009, 12/7/2009, 12/7/2009, 12/7/2009…}
  203 12/8/2009                 {12/8/2009, 12/8/2009, 12/8/2009, 12/8/2009…}
  217 12/9/2009                 {12/9/2009, 12/9/2009, 12/9/2009, 12/9/2009…}
  278 12/10/2009                {12/10/2009, 12/10/2009, 12/10/2009, 12/10/2009…}
  259 12/11/2009                {12/11/2009, 12/11/2009, 12/11/2009, 12/11/2009…}
  224 12/12/2009                {12/12/2009, 12/12/2009, 12/12/2009, 12/12/2009…}
  237 12/13/2009                {12/13/2009, 12/13/2009, 12/13/2009, 12/13/2009…}
   91 12/14/2009                {12/14/2009, 12/14/2009, 12/14/2009, 12/14/2009…}

 

Going back to the initial counts of events by their IDs, when showing the errors the counts above had spotted the presence of a lonely 4512 event, which might have gone undetected if just browsing the eventlog with the GUI, since it only occurred once.

Let’s take a look at it:

PS  >> $evt | where {$_.eventid -eq 4512}

   Index Time          EntryType   Source                 InstanceID Message
   —– —-          ———   ——                 ———- ——-
5560756 Dec 12 11:18  Error       HealthService          3221229984 Converting data batch to XML failed with error …

Now, when it is about counts, Powershell is great.  But sometimes Powershell makes it difficult to actually READ the (long) event messages (descriptions) in the console. For example, our event ID 4512 is difficult to read in its entirety and gets truncated with trailing dots…

we can of course increase the window size and/or selecting only THAT one field to read it better:

PS  >> $evt | where {$_.eventid -eq 4512} | select message

Message
——-
Converting data batch to XML failed with error "Not enough storage is available to complete this operation." (0x8007000E) in rule "Microsoft.SystemCenter.ConfigurationService.CollectionRule.Event.ConfigurationChanged" running for instance "RMS.MYDOMAIN.COM" with id:"{04F4ADED-2C7F-92EF-D620-9AF9685F736F}" in management group "SCOMPROD"

Or, worst case, if it still does not fit, we can still go and search for it in the actual, usual eventlog application… but at least we will have spotted it!

 

The above wants to give you an idea of what is easily accomplished with some simple one-liners, and how it can be a useful aid in analyzing/digging into Eventlogs.

All of the above is ALSO be possible with Logparser, and it would actually be even less heavy on memory usage and it will be quicker, to be honest!

I just like Powershell syntax a lot more, and its ubiquity, which makes it a better option for me. Your mileage may vary, of course.

The mystery of the lost registry values

During the OpsMgr Health Check engagement we use custom code to assess the customer’s Management group, as I wrote here already. Given that the customer tells us which machine is the RMS, one of the very first things that we do in our tool is to connect to the RMS’s registry, and check the values under HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft Operations Manager\3.0\Setup to see which machine holds the database. It is a rather critical piece of information for us, as we run a number of queries afterward… so we need to know where the db is, obviously 🙂

I learned from here http://mybsinfo.blogspot.com/2007/01/powershell-remote-registry-and-you-part.html how to access registry remotely thru powershell, by using .Net classes. This is also one of the methods illustrated in this other article on Technet Script Center http://www.microsoft.com/technet/scriptcenter/resources/qanda/jan09/hey0105.mspx 

Therefore the “core” instructions of the function I was using to access the registry looked like the following

  1. Function GetValueFromRegistry ([string]$computername, $regkey, $value)   
  2. {  
  3.      $reg = [Microsoft.Win32.RegistryKey]::OpenRemoteBaseKey('LocalMachine', $computername)  
  4.      $regKey= $reg.OpenSubKey("$regKey")  
  5.      $result = $regkey.GetValue("$value")  
  6.      return $result 
  7. }  

 

[Note: the actual function is bigger, and contains error handling, and logging, and a number of other things that are unnecessary here]

Therefore, the function was called as follows:
GetValueFromRegistry $RMS "SOFTWARE\\Microsoft\\Microsoft Operations Manager\\3.0\\Setup" "DatabaseServerName"
Now so far so good.

In theory.

 

Now for some reason that I could not immediately explain, we had noticed that this piece of code performing registry accessm while working most of the times, only on SOME occasions was giving errors about not being able to open the registry value…

image

When you are onsite with a customer conducting an assessment, the PFE engineer does not always has the time to troubleshoot the error… as time is critical, we have usually resorted to just running the assessment from ANOTHER machine, and this “solved” the issue… but always left me wondering WHY this was giving an error. I had suspected an issue with permissions first, but it could not be as the permissions were obviously right: performing the assessment from another machine but with the same user was working!

A few days ago my colleague and buddy Stefan Stranger figured out that this was related to the platform architecture:

  • X64 client to x64 RMS was working
  • X64 client to x86 RMS was working
  • X86 client to x86 RMS was working
  • X86 client to x64 RMS was NOT working

You don’t need to use our custom code to reproduce this, REGEDIT shows the behavior as well.

If, from a 64-bit server, you open a remote registry connection to 64-bit RMS server, you can see all OpsMgr registry keys:

clip_image002

If, anyhow, from a 32-bit server, you open a remote registry connection to 64-bit RMS server, you don’t see ALL – but only SOME – OpsMgr registry keys:
clip_image004

So here’s the reason! This is what was happening! How could I not think of this before? It was nothing related to permissions, but to registry redirection! The issue was happening because the 32 bit machine is using the 32bit registry editor and what it will do when accessing a 64bit machine will be to default to the Wow6432Node location in the registry. There all OpsMgr data won’t be in the WOW64 location on a 64bit machine, only some.

So, just like regedit, the 32bit powershell and the 32bit .Net framework were being redirected to the 32bit-compatibility registry keys… not finding the stuff we needed, whereas a 64bit application could find that. Any 32bit application by default gets redirected to a 32bit-safe registry.

So, after finally UNDERSTANDING what the issue was, I started wondering: ok… but how can I access the REAL “HLKM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft” key on a 64bit machine when running this FROM a 32bit machine – WITHOUT being redirected to “HKLM\SOFTWARE\Wow6432Node\Microsoft” ? What if my application CAN deal just fine with those values and actually NEEDs to access them?

The answer wasn’t as easy as the question. I did a bit of digging on this, and still I have NOT yet found a way to do this with the .Net classes. It seems that in a lot of situations, Powershell or even .Net classes are nice and sweet wrappers on the underlying Windows APIs… but for how sweet and easy they are, they are very often not very complete wrappers – letting you do just about enough for most situations, but not quite everything you would or could with the APi underneath. But I digress, here…

The good news is that I did manage to get this working, but I had to resort to using dear old WMI StdRegProvider… There are a number of locations on the Internet mentioning the issue of accessing 32bit registry from 64bit machines or vice versa, but all examples I have found were using VBScript. But I needed it in Powershell. Therefore I started with the VBScript example code that is present here, and I ported it to Powershell.

Handling the WMI COM object from Powershell was slightly less intuitive than in VBScript, and it took me a couple of hours to figure out how to change some stuff, especially this bit that sets the parameters collection:

Set Inparams = objStdRegProv.Methods_("GetStringValue").Inparameters

Inparams.Hdefkey = HKLM

Inparams.Ssubkeyname = RegKey

Inparams.Svaluename = RegValue

Set Outparams = objStdRegProv.ExecMethod_("GetStringValue", Inparams,,objCtx)

INTO this:

$Inparams = ($objStdRegProv.Methods_ | where {$_.name -eq "GetStringValue"}).InParameters.SpawnInstance_()

($Inparams.Properties_ | where {$_.name -eq "Hdefkey"}).Value = $HKLM

($Inparams.Properties_ | where {$_.name -eq "Ssubkeyname"}).Value = $regkey

($Inparams.Properties_ | where {$_.name -eq "Svaluename"}).Value = $value

$Outparams = $objStdRegProv.ExecMethod_("GetStringValue", $Inparams, "", $objNamedValueSet)

 

I have only done limited testing at this point and, even if the actual work now requires nearly 15 lines of code to be performed vs. the previous 3 lines in the .Net implementation, it at least seems to work just fine.

What follows is the complete code of my replacement function, in all its uglyness glory:

 

  1. Function GetValueFromRegistryThruWMI([string]$computername, $regkey, $value)  
  2. {  
  3.     #constant for the HLKM  
  4.     $HKLM = "&h80000002" 
  5.  
  6.     #creates an SwbemNamedValueSet object
  7.     $objNamedValueSet = New-Object -COM "WbemScripting.SWbemNamedValueSet" 
  8.  
  9.     #adds the actual value that will requests the target to provide 64bit-registry info
  10.     $objNamedValueSet.Add("__ProviderArchitecture", 64) | Out-Null 
  11.  
  12.     #back to all the other usual COM objects for WMI that you have used a zillion times in VBScript
  13.     $objLocator = New-Object -COM "Wbemscripting.SWbemLocator" 
  14.     $objServices = $objLocator.ConnectServer($computername,"root\default","","","","","",$objNamedValueSet)  
  15.     $objStdRegProv = $objServices.Get("StdRegProv")  
  16.  
  17.     # Obtain an InParameters object specific to the method.  
  18.     $Inparams = ($objStdRegProv.Methods_ | where {$_.name -eq "GetStringValue"}).InParameters.SpawnInstance_()  
  19.   
  20.     # Add the input parameters  
  21.     ($Inparams.Properties_ | where {$_.name -eq "Hdefkey"}).Value = $HKLM 
  22.     ($Inparams.Properties_ | where {$_.name -eq "Ssubkeyname"}).Value = $regkey 
  23.     ($Inparams.Properties_ | where {$_.name -eq "Svaluename"}).Value = $value 
  24.  
  25.     #Execute the method  
  26.     $Outparams = $objStdRegProv.ExecMethod_("GetStringValue", $Inparams, "", $objNamedValueSet)  
  27.  
  28.     #shows the return value  
  29.     ($Outparams.Properties_ | where {$_.name -eq "ReturnValue"}).Value  
  30.  
  31.     if (($Outparams.Properties_ | where {$_.name -eq "ReturnValue"}).Value -eq 0)  
  32.     {  
  33.        write-host "it worked" 
  34.        $result = ($Outparams.Properties_ | where {$_.name -eq "sValue"}).Value  
  35.        write-host "Result: $result" 
  36.        return $result 
  37.     }  
  38.     else 
  39.     {  
  40.         write-host "nope" 
  41.     }  
  42. }  

 

which can be called similarly to the previous one:
GetValueFromRegistryThruWMI $RMS "SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft Operations Manager\3.0\Setup" "DatabaseServerName"

[Note: you don’t need the double\escape backslashes here, compared to the .Net implementation]

Enjoy your cross-architecture registry access: from 32bit to 64bit – and back!

Get-WmiCustom (aka: Get-WMIObject with timeout!)

I make heavy use of WMI.

But when using it to gather information from customer’s machines for assessments, I sometimes find the occasional broken WMI repository. There are a number of ways in which WMI can become corrupted and return weird results. Most of the times you would just get errors, such as “Class not registered” or “provider load failure”. I can handle those errors from within scripts.

But there are some, more subtle – and annoying – ways in which the WMI repository can get corrupted. the situations I am talking about are the ones when WMI will accept your query… will say it is executing it… but it will never actually return any error, and just stay stuck performing your query forever. Until your client application decides to time out. Which in some cases does not happen.

Now that was my issue – when my assessment script (which was using the handy Powershell Get-WmiObject cmdlet) would hit one of those machines… the whole script would hang forever and never finish its job. Ok, sure, the solution to this would be actually FIXING the WMI repository and then try again. But remember I am talking of an assessment: if the information I am getting is just one piece of a bigger puzzle, and I don’t necessarily care about it and can continue without that information – I want to be able to do it, to skip that info, maybe the whole section, report an error saying I am not able to get that information, and continue to get the remaining info. I can still fix the issue on the machine afterward AND then run the assessment script again, but in the first place I just want to get a picture of how the system looks like. With the good and with the bad things. Especially, I do want to take that whole picture – not just a piece of it.

Unfortunately, the Get-WmiObject cmdlet does not let you specify a timeout. Therefore I cooked my own function which has a compatible behaviour to that of Get-WmiObject, but with an added “-timeout” parameter which can be set. I dubbed it “Get-WmiCustom”

Function Get-WmiCustom([string]$computername,[string]$namespace,[string]$class,[int]$timeout=15)
{
$ConnectionOptions = new-object System.Management.ConnectionOptions
$EnumerationOptions = new-object System.Management.EnumerationOptions

$timeoutseconds = new-timespan -seconds $timeout
$EnumerationOptions.set_timeout($timeoutseconds)

$assembledpath = "\\" + $computername + "\" + $namespace
#write-host $assembledpath -foregroundcolor yellow

$Scope = new-object System.Management.ManagementScope $assembledpath, $ConnectionOptions
$Scope.Connect()

$querystring = "SELECT * FROM " + $class
#write-host $querystring

$query = new-object System.Management.ObjectQuery $querystring
$searcher = new-object System.Management.ManagementObjectSearcher
$searcher.set_options($EnumerationOptions)
$searcher.Query = $querystring
$searcher.Scope = $Scope

trap { $_ } $result = $searcher.get()

return $result
}

You can call it as follows, which is similar to how you would call get-WmiObject

get-wmicustom -class Win32_Service -namespace "root\cimv2" -computername server1.domain.dom

or, of course, specifying the timeout (in seconds):

get-wmicustom -class Win32_Service -namespace "root\cimv2" -computername server1.domain.dom –timeout 1

and obviously, since the function returns objects just like the original cmdlet, it is also possible to pipe them to other commands:

get-wmicustom -class Win32_Service -namespace "root\cimv2" -computername server1.domain.dom –timeout 1 | Format-Table

Programmatically Check for Management Pack updates in OpsMgr 2007 R2

One of the cool new features of System Center Operations Manager 2007 R2 is the possibility to check and update Management Packs from the catalog on the Internet directly from the Operators Console:

Select Management Packs from Catalog

Even if the backend for this feature is not yet documented, I was extremely curious to see how this had actually been implemented. Especially since it took a while to have this feature available for OpsMgr, I had the suspicion that it could not be as simple as one downloadable XML file, like the old MOM2005's MPNotifier had been using in the past.

Therefore I observed the console's traffic through the lens of my proxy, and got my answer:

ISA Server Log

So that was it: a .Net Web Service.

I tried to ask the web service itself for discovery information, but failed:

WSDL

Since there is no WSDL available, but I badly wanted to interact with it, I had to figure out: what kind of requests would be allowed to it, how should they be written, what methods could they call and what parameters should I pass in the call. In order to get started on this, I thought I could just observe its network traffic. And so I did… I fired up Network Monitor and captured the traffic:

Microsoft Network Monitor 3.2

Microsoft Network Monitor is beautiful and useful for this kind of stuff, as it lets you easily identify which application a given stream of traffic belongs to, just like in the picture above. After I had isolated just the traffic from the Operations Console, I then saved those captures packets in CAP format and opened it again in Wireshark for a different kind of analysis – "Follow TCP Stream":

Wireshark: Follow TCP Stream

This showed me the reassembled conversation, and what kind of request was actually done to the Web Service. That was the information I needed.

Ready to rock at this point, I came up with this Powershell script (to be run in OpsMgr Command Shell) that will:

1) connect to the web service and retrieve the complete MP list for R2 (this part is also useful on its own, as it shows how to interact with a SOAP web service in Powershell, invoking a method of the web service by issuing a specially crafted POST request. To give due credit, for this part I first looked at this PERL code, which I then adapted and ported to Powershell);

2) loop through the results of the "Get-ManagementPack" opsmgr cmdlet and compare each MP found in the Management Group with those pulled from the catalog;

3) display a table of all imported MPs with both the version imported in your Management Group AND the version available on the catalog:

Script output in OpsMgr Command Shell

Remember that this is just SAMPLE code, it is not meant to be used in production environment and it is worth mentioning again that OpsMgr2007 R2 this is BETA software at the time of writing, therefore this functionality (and its implementation) might change at any time, and the script will break. Also, at present, the MP Catalog web service still returns slightly older MP versions and it is not yet kept in sync and updated with MP Releases, but it will be ready and with complete/updated content by the time R2 gets released.

Disclaimer

The information in this weblog is provided "AS IS" with no warranties, and confers no rights. This weblog does not represent the thoughts, intentions, plans or strategies of my employer. It is solely my own personal opinion. All code samples are provided "AS IS" without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and/or fitness for a particular purpose.
THIS WORK IS NOT ENDORSED AND NOT EVEN CHECKED, AUTHORIZED, SCRUTINIZED NOR APPROVED BY MY EMPLOYER, AND IT ONLY REPRESENT SOMETHING WHICH I'VE DONE IN MY FREE TIME. NO GUARANTEE WHATSOEVER IS GIVEN ON THIS. THE AUTHOR SHALL NOT BE MADE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE YOU MIGHT INCUR WHEN USING THIS INFORMATION. The solution presented here IS NOT SUPPORTED by Microsoft.