How to convert (and fixup) the RedHat RPM to run on Debian/Ubuntu

In an earlier post I had shown how I got the Xplat agent running on Ubuntu. I perfected the technique over time, and what follows is a step-by-step process on how to convert and change the RedHat package to run on Debian/Ubuntu. Of course this is still a hack… but some people asked me to detail it a bit more. At the same time, the cross platform team is working to update the the source code on codeplex with extra bits that will make more straightforward to grab it, modify it and re-compile it than it is today. Until then, here is how I got it to work.

I assume you have already copied the right .RPM package off the OpsMgr server’s /AgentManagement directory to the Linux box here. The examples below refer to the 32bit package, but of course the same identical technique would work for the 64bit version.

We start by converting the RPM package to DEB format:

root# alien -k scx-1.0.4-258.rhel.5.x86.rpm –scripts

scx_1.0.4-258_i386.deb generated

 

Then we need to create a folder where we will extract the content of the package, modify stuff, and repackage it:

root# mkdir scx_1.0.4-258_i386

root# cd scx_1.0.4-258_i386

root# ar -x ../scx_1.0.4-258_i386.deb

root# mkdir debian

root# cd debian

root# mkdir DEBIAN

root# cd DEBIAN

root# cd ../..

root# rm debian-binary

root# mv control.tar.gz debian/DEBIAN/

root# mv data.tar.gz debian/

root# cd debian

root# tar -xvzf data.tar.gz

root# rm data.tar.gz

root# cd DEBIAN/

root# tar -xvzf control.tar.gz

root# rm control.tar.gz

Now we have the “skeleton” of the package easily laid out on the filesystem and we are ready to modify the package and add/change stuff to and in it.

 

First, we need to add some stuff to it, which is expected to be found on a redhat distro, but is not present in debian. In particular:

1. You should copy the file “functions” (that you can get from a redhat/centos box under /etc/init.d) under the debian/etc/init.d folder in our package folder. This file is required/included by our startup scripts, so it needs to be deployed too.

Then we need to chang some of the packacge behavior by editing files under debian/DEBIAN:

2. edit the “control” file (a file describing what the package is, and does):

clip_image002

3. edit the “preinst” file (pre-installation instructions): we need to add instructions to copy the “issue” file onto “redhat-release” (as the SCX_OperatingSystem class will look into that file, and this is hard-coded in the binary, we need to let it find it):

clip_image004

these are the actual command lines to add for both packages (DEBIAN or UBUNTU):

# symbolic links for libaries called differently on Ubuntu and Debian vs. RedHat

ln -s /usr/lib/libcrypto.so.0.9.8 /usr/lib/libcrypto.so.6

ln -s /usr/lib/libssl.so.0.9.8 /usr/lib/libssl.so.6

the following bit would be Ubuntu-specific:

#we need this file for the OS provider relies on it, so we convert what we have in /etc/issue

#this is ok for Ubuntu (“Ubuntu 9.0.4 \n \l” becomes “Ubuntu 9.0.4”)

cat /etc/issue | awk ‘/\\n/ {print $1, $2}’ > /etc/redhat-release

while the following bit is Debian-specific:

#this is ok for Debian (“Debian GNU/Linux 5.0 \n \l” becomes “Debian GNU/Linux 5.0”)

cat /etc/issue | awk ‘/\\n/ {print $1, $2, $3}’ > /etc/redhat-release

 

4. Then we edit/modify the “postinst” file (post-installation instructions) as follows:

a. remove the 2nd and 3rd lines which look like the following

RPM_INSTALL_PREFIX=

export RPM_INSTALL_PREFIX

as they are only useful for the RPM system, not DEB/APT, so we don’t need them.

b. change the following 2 functions which contain RedHat-specific commands:

configure_pegasus_service() {

           /usr/lib/lsb/install_initd /etc/init.d/scx-cimd

}

start_pegasus_service() {

           service scx-cimd start

}

c. We need to change in the Debian equivalents for registering a service in INIT and starting it:

configure_pegasus_service() {

               update-rc.d scx-cimd defaults

}

start_pegasus_service() {

              /etc/init.d/scx-cimd start

}

5. Modify the “prerm” file (pre-removal instructions):

a. Just like “postinst”, remove the lines

RPM_INSTALL_PREFIX=

export RPM_INSTALL_PREFIX

b. Locate the two functions stopping and un-installing the service

stop_pegasus_service() {

         service scx-cimd stop

}

unregister_pegasus_service() {

          /usr/lib/lsb/remove_initd /etc/init.d/scx-cimd

}

c. Change those two functions with the Debian-equivalent command lines

stop_pegasus_service() {

           /etc/init.d/scx-cimd stop

}

unregister_pegasus_service() {

           update-rc.d -f scx-cimd remove

}

At this point the change we needed have been put in place, and we can re-build the DEB package.

Move yourself in the main folder of the application (the scx_1.0.4-258_i386 folder):

root# cd ../..

Create the package starting from the folders

root# dpkg-deb –build debian

dpkg-deb: building package `scx’ in `debian.deb’.

Rename the package (for Ubuntu)

root# mv debian.deb scx_1.0.4-258_Ubuntu_9_i386.deb

Rename the package (for Debian)

root# mv debian.deb scx_1.0.4-258_Debian_5_i386.deb

Install it

root# dpkg -i scx_1.0.4-258_Platform_Version_i386.deb

All done! It should install and work!

 

Next step would be creating a Management Pack to monitor Debian and Ubuntu. It is pretty similar to what Robert Hearn has described step by step for CentOS, but with some different replacements of strings, as you can imagine. I have done this but have not written down the procedure yet, so I will post another article on how to do this as soon as I manage to get it standardized and reliable. There is a bit more work involved for Ubuntu/Debian… as some of the daemons/services have different names, and certain files too… but nothing terribly difficult to change so you might want to try it already and have a go at it!

In the meantime, as a teaser, here’s my server’s (http://www.muscetta.com) performance, being monitored with this “hack”:

image

 

Disclaimer

The information in this weblog is provided "AS IS" with no warranties, and confers no rights. This weblog does not represent the thoughts, intentions, plans or strategies of my employer. It is solely my own personal opinion. All code samples are provided "AS IS" without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and/or fitness for a particular purpose.
THIS WORK IS NOT ENDORSED AND NOT EVEN CHECKED, AUTHORIZED, SCRUTINIZED NOR APPROVED BY MY EMPLOYER, AND IT ONLY REPRESENT SOMETHING WHICH I’VE DONE IN MY FREE TIME. NO GUARANTEE WHATSOEVER IS GIVEN ON THIS. THE AUTHOR SHALL NOT BE MADE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE YOU MIGHT INCUR WHEN USING THIS INFORMATION. The solution presented here IS NOT SUPPORTED by Microsoft.

Programmatically Check for Management Pack updates in OpsMgr 2007 R2

One of the cool new features of System Center Operations Manager 2007 R2 is the possibility to check and update Management Packs from the catalog on the Internet directly from the Operators Console:

Select Management Packs from Catalog

Even if the backend for this feature is not yet documented, I was extremely curious to see how this had actually been implemented. Especially since it took a while to have this feature available for OpsMgr, I had the suspicion that it could not be as simple as one downloadable XML file, like the old MOM2005’s MPNotifier had been using in the past.

Therefore I observed the console’s traffic through the lens of my proxy, and got my answer:

ISA Server Log

So that was it: a .Net Web Service.

I tried to ask the web service itself for discovery information, but failed:

WSDL

Since there is no WSDL available, but I badly wanted to interact with it, I had to figure out: what kind of requests would be allowed to it, how should they be written, what methods could they call and what parameters should I pass in the call. In order to get started on this, I thought I could just observe its network traffic. And so I did… I fired up Network Monitor and captured the traffic:

Microsoft Network Monitor 3.2

Microsoft Network Monitor is beautiful and useful for this kind of stuff, as it lets you easily identify which application a given stream of traffic belongs to, just like in the picture above. After I had isolated just the traffic from the Operations Console, I then saved those captures packets in CAP format and opened it again in Wireshark for a different kind of analysis – “Follow TCP Stream”:

Wireshark: Follow TCP Stream

This showed me the reassembled conversation, and what kind of request was actually done to the Web Service. That was the information I needed.

Ready to rock at this point, I came up with this Powershell script (to be run in OpsMgr Command Shell) that will:

1) connect to the web service and retrieve the complete MP list for R2 (this part is also useful on its own, as it shows how to interact with a SOAP web service in Powershell, invoking a method of the web service by issuing a specially crafted POST request. To give due credit, for this part I first looked at this PERL code, which I then adapted and ported to Powershell);

2) loop through the results of the “Get-ManagementPack” opsmgr cmdlet and compare each MP found in the Management Group with those pulled from the catalog;

3) display a table of all imported MPs with both the version imported in your Management Group AND the version available on the catalog:

Script output in OpsMgr Command Shell

Remember that this is just SAMPLE code, it is not meant to be used in production environment and it is worth mentioning again that OpsMgr2007 R2 this is BETA software at the time of writing, therefore this functionality (and its implementation) might change at any time, and the script will break. Also, at present, the MP Catalog web service still returns slightly older MP versions and it is not yet kept in sync and updated with MP Releases, but it will be ready and with complete/updated content by the time R2 gets released.

Disclaimer

The information in this weblog is provided “AS IS” with no warranties, and confers no rights. This weblog does not represent the thoughts, intentions, plans or strategies of my employer. It is solely my own personal opinion. All code samples are provided “AS IS” without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and/or fitness for a particular purpose.
THIS WORK IS NOT ENDORSED AND NOT EVEN CHECKED, AUTHORIZED, SCRUTINIZED NOR APPROVED BY MY EMPLOYER, AND IT ONLY REPRESENT SOMETHING WHICH I’VE DONE IN MY FREE TIME. NO GUARANTEE WHATSOEVER IS GIVEN ON THIS. THE AUTHOR SHALL NOT BE MADE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE YOU MIGHT INCUR WHEN USING THIS INFORMATION. The solution presented here IS NOT SUPPORTED by Microsoft.

CentOS discovery in OpsMgr2007 R2 beta

Here we go again. Now that the OpsMgr2007 R2 beta is out, with an improved and revamped version of the System Center Cross Platform Extensions, I faced the issue of how to upgrade my test lab.

I have to say that OpsMgr2007 R2 beta release notes explain the known issues, and I had no trouble whatsoever upgrading the windows part. It just took its time (I am running virtual machines in my test lab, that don’t have the best performance), but it went smoothly and without a glitch. In a couple of hours I had everything upgraded: databases, RMS, reporting, agents, gateway. All right then. The new purple icons in System Center look cute, and the new UI has some great stuff, such as a long-awaited way to update your management packs directly from the Internet, better display of Overrides (kind of what we used to rely on Override Explorer for)… and  A LOT more new stuff that I won’t be wasting my Sunday writing about since everybody else has already done it two days ago:

opsmgr aggregated feed on Twitter

Therefore let’s get back to my upgrade, which is a lot more interesting (to me) than the marketing tam-tam 🙂

As part of the upgrade to R2, I had to first uninstall the Xplat beta refresh bits, which I had installed, including all Unix Management Packs. Including my CentOS Management Pack I had improvised.

So this is the new start page of the integrated Discovery Wizard:

Discovery Wizard

Looks nice and integrates the functionality of discovering and deploying Windows machines, SNMP Devices, and Unix/Linux machines.

Of course, my CentOS machine would not be discovered, and showed up as an unsupported platform. Of course my old Management Pack I had hacked together in XPlat Beta 1 did not work anymore. Therefore, I figured out I had to see what changes were there, and how to make it work again (of course it IS possible – It is NOT SUPPORTED, but I don’t care, as long as it works).

Since the existing agent could not be discovered, the first step I took was logging on the Linux box, un-install the old agent, and install the new one:

XPlat Agent RPM Install on CentOS

There I tried to discover again, but of course it still failed.

At that point I started taking a look at the new layout of things on the unix side. Most stuff is located in the same directories where beta1 was installed, and there are a bunch of useful commands under /opt/microsoft/scx/bin/tools.
You can check out the Open Pegasus version used:

[root@centos tools]# ./scxcimconfig –version
Version 2.7.0

Let’s take a look at what SCX classes we have available:

./scxcimcli nc -n root/scx -di |grep SCX | sort

./scxcimcli nc -n root/scx -di |grep SCX | sort

Nice. That’s the stuff we will be querying over WS-Man from the Management Server.

So let’s look at the OS Discovery, and we test it from the OpsMgr 2007 box:

winrm enumerate http://schemas.microsoft.com/wbem/wscim/1/cim-schema/2/SCX_OperatingSystem?__cimnamespace=root/scx -username:root -password:password -r:https://centos:1270/wsman -auth:basic -skipCACheck

it returns results:

OS WS-Man Query

At first I assumed this worked like in Beta1, therefore I exported RedHat management pack and I made my own version of it, replacing the strings it is expecting to find to discover CentOS instead than Redhat.

While the MP was syntactically correct and would import fine, the Discovery wizard still didn’t work.

I took one more look at the discoveries in the MP, and I found there are two more, targeted to Management Server, which is probably what gets used by the Discovery Wizard to understand what kind of agent kit needs to be deployed.

MP XML - Discoveries

So basically this discovery checks for the returned value from the module to determine if the discovered platform is a supported one:

Discovery Settings

But how does the module get its data?

Look at the layout of the /AgentManagement/UnixAgents folder on the Management Server:

/AgentManagement/unixAgents

That’s it: GetOSVersion.sh – a shell script. A nice, open, clear text, hackable shell script. Let’s take a look at it:

Discovery Script Hack

So that’s it, and how my modification looks like. What happens during the discovery wizard is that we probably copy the script over SCP to the box, execute it, look at a number of things, and return the discovery data we need.

If you do those steps manually, you see how the script returns something very similar to a PropertyBag, just like discoveries done by VBScript on Windows machines:

Discovery Script Output

So after modifying the script… here we go. The Wizard now thinks CentOS is Red Hat, and can install an agent on it:

Discovery Wizard

Deploying Agent

Only when the Management Server discovery finally considers the CentOS machine worth managing, then the other discoveries that use WS-Man queries start kicking in, like the old one did, and find the OS objects and all the other hosted objects. In order for this to work you don’t only need to hack the shell script, but to have a hacked MP – the “regular” Red Har one won’t find CentOS, which is and remains an UNSUPPORTED platform.

CentOS Health Model

Disclaimer

The information in this weblog is provided “AS IS” with no warranties, and confers no rights. This weblog does not represent the thoughts, intentions, plans or strategies of my employer. It is solely my own personal opinion. All code samples are provided “AS IS” without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and/or fitness for a particular purpose.
THIS WORK IS NOT ENDORSED AND NOT EVEN CHECKED, AUTHORIZED, SCRUTINIZED NOR APPROVED BY MY EMPLOYER, AND IT ONLY REPRESENT SOMETHING WHICH I’VE DONE IN MY FREE TIME. NO GUARANTEE WHATSOEVER IS GIVEN ON THIS. THE AUTHOR SHALL NOT BE MADE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE YOU MIGHT INCUR WHEN USING THIS INFORMATION. The solution presented here IS NOT SUPPORTED by Microsoft.

Protecting custom Resolution State in OpsMgr 2007

In System Center Operations Manager 2007, you can add and remove resolution states for your alerts at will. Other than states “0” (“New”) and “255” (“Closed”) you can create other 254 resolution states to suit your needs. This is a simple feature that was already present in previous MOM versions, and it is very useful to do a kind of tricks with your alerts. The amount of possible states you can create should be able to satisfy any kind of alert and incident management process you might have in place, and any kind of filtering or forwarding or escalation need you might want to perform by using resolution states.

image

By default, only OpsMgr Administrators can change these settings, with the exception of the two built-in states of “New” and “Closed”: those two states are REQUIRED if you want the product to continue working, therefore the GUI won’t let you change, edit or delete them. Which is good.

This is not true for your own resolution states, which can be edited or even deleted any time. All that is really saved in an alert when you change an alert’s resolution state is the NUMBER associated with it. In fact you even use that number when querying for alerts in the Command Shell:

get-alert | where {$_.resolutionstate -eq 0}

That means that if by accident you delete a resolution state you have defined, you won’t see its description anymore in the GUI. Also, if you try to re-organize your resolution state, you can easily change the IDs for existing ones… Sure, you need to have the permissions in order to change or delete them, but what if you have implemented your important Alert and Incident management process by using resolution states and you want a bit of extra protection from mistakes or unintended deletion for them?

Then you can protect them by making the product think they were “built-in” too, just like “New” and “Closed”.

How would you do this? In an UNSUPPORTED WAY: editing the database 🙂 In fact, those resolution states are written in a table in the database, called “ResolutionState” (who would have guessed it?), that looks like the following picture:

dbo.ResolutionState

Can you see the “IsPredefined” column? That can be set to “True” or “False” and that value is used by the SDK service to tell the GUI if that Resolution State can be edited/deleted or not.

Of course changing the database directly IS NOT SUPPORTED by Microsoft. You do this at your own risk, and if it was me, I would *NEVER* touch, change or remove the default two states (“New” and “Closed”) as THAT really would BREAK the product. For example, Alerts that are not set to “Closed” (255) won’t be ever groomed. And that is VERY BAD. NEVER, NEVER DO THAT.

On the other end, changing a custom Resolution State to make the product believe it is Predefined/Built-in has not had any negative impact in my (limited) testing so far, and has added the advantage of “protecting” my resolution state from unintended deletion, as shown below:

image

As usual, do this at your own risk. Remember what’s written in my Disclaimer:

The information in this weblog is provided “AS IS” with no warranties, and confers no rights. This weblog does not represent the thoughts, intentions, plans or strategies of my employer. It is solely my own personal opinion. All code samples are provided “AS IS” without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and/or fitness for a particular purpose.
THIS WORK IS NOT ENDORSED AND NOT EVEN CHECKED, AUTHORIZED, SCRUTINIZED NOR APPROVED BY MICROSOFT, AND IT ONLY REPRESENT SOMETHING WHICH I’VE DONE IN MY FREE TIME. NO GUARANTEE WHATSOEVER IS GIVEN ON THIS. THE AUTHOR SHALL NOT BE MADE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE YOU MIGHT INCUR WHEN USING THIS HACK.

CentOS 5 Management Pack for OpsMgr SCX

As I mentioned here, I have been testing the SCX beta.

Not having one of the “supported” platforms pushed me into playing with the provided Management Packs, and in turn I managed to use the MP for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 as a base, and replaced a couple of strings in the discoveries in order to get a working CentOS 5 Management Pack.

CentOS_HealthExplorer01_NEW

I still have not looked into the “hardware” monitors and health model / service model, so those are not currently monitored. But it is a start.

A lot of people have asked me a lot of information and would like to get the file – both in the blog’s comment, on the newsgroup, or via mail. I am sorry, but I cannot provide you with the file, because it has not been throughly tested and might render your systems unstable, and also because there might be licensing and copyright issues that I have not checked within Microsoft.

Keep also in mind that using CentOS as a monitored platform is NOT a SUPPORTED scenario/platform for SCX. I only used it because I did not have a Suse or Redhat handy that day, and because I wanted to understand how the Management Packs using WS-Man worked.

This said, should you wish to try to do the same “MP Hacking” I did,  I pretty much explained all you need to know in my previous post and its comments, so that should not be that difficult.

Actually, I still think that the best way to figure out how things are done is by looking at the actual implementation, so I encourage you to look at the management packs and figure out how those work. There are a few mature tools out there that will help you author/edit Management Packs if you don’t want to edit the XML directly: the Authoring Console, and Silect MP Studio Lite, for example. If you want to delve in the XML details, instead, then I suggest you read the Authoring Guide and peek at Steve Wilson’s AuthorMPs.com site.

Disclaimer
The information in this weblog is provided “AS IS” with no warranties, and confers no rights. This weblog does not represent the thoughts, intentions, plans or strategies of my employer. It is solely my own personal opinion. All code samples are provided “AS IS” without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and/or fitness for a particular purpose.
THIS WORK IS NOT ENDORSED AND NOT EVEN CHECKED, AUTHORIZED, SCRUTINIZED NOR APPROVED BY MY EMPLOYER, AND IT ONLY REPRESENT SOMETHING WHICH I’VE DONE IN MY FREE TIME. NO GUARANTEE WHATSOEVER IS GIVEN ON THIS. THE AUTHOR SHALL NOT BE MADE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE YOU MIGHT INCUR WHEN USING THIS PROGRAM.

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